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Percy Edward Newberry Collection Flora and Fauna (Percy Newberry Collection)
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Holden, Thomas - correspondence

Correspondence from Thomas Holden relating to flora and gardening including enquiry from Lord Rennell relating to the discovery of old seeds.

Note:
MSS 24/45 is also numbered A.167
MSS 24/46 is also numbered A.167b

There are two letters without reference numbers, one of which is numbered A.167a

Maxwell, (Sir) John Grenfell (1859-1929) - correspondence

Correspondence from Sir John Grenfell Maxwell (1859-1929) including letter suggesting to Newberry where he should dig at Sakha with sketch map, and including notes by Newberry on flora (1912).

Also includes letter to Mary Jonas on asking Lord Carnavon to 'preside' (1922) and circular requesting donations to the Egypt Exploration Society (1928).

Note:
One letter does not have a Dawson reference but is also numbered A.80

Schweinfurth, Georg - correspondence

Correspondence from Georg Schweinfurth including relating to tombs near Drah abu'l Negga including sketch map and drawing (1902); Quartz, Emery and its possible mining in Assuan (1914); plant remains in the tomb of Tutankhamun and a publication by Keimer on the flora of ancient Egypt (1923).

Notebook on topics including objects, flora, fauna, products, places and gods

Notebook labelled by John Harris 'Miscellaneous Notes' with an index at the front containing notes on objects, flora, fauna, products, places and gods. It includes examples of attestations of words, variant writings, expressions or other terms formed by or including them, and some ancient Egyptian texts/hymns in translation.

Includes handwritten notes on:

  • objects (censers, bird traps, djed pillar, netjer pole, furniture, mirrors, sandals, tjet knot, chariots, flail and crock)

  • flora (plants, trees including conifers, cedar, cypress , woods including ebony, grain and wheat)

  • fauna (dogs, camels, giraffes, deer, oryx and a fauna bibliography)

  • products (natron, incense, myrrh, methods of tapping resin)

  • places (Lebanon, Byblos, “the land of the god”, Zahi, Retjenu, Phoenicia, place names in Syria)

  • gods (Osiris, Atum-Kheprer [also referred to as Atum-Kheper or Atum-Kepri], Iah, Adonis and Attis, Neferhetep, hieroglyph for God [R8] and variants)

Also includes notes on funerary offerings, the word sedj in seals, circumcision and the ritual of embalming.

Pages 3-4, 48-49, 51-59, 61-69 and 72-75 have been cut out. According to the index at the front of the notebook these pages include notes on:
-trees and wood (merw-wood, wan-wood, Peqer tree)
-animals (pig, cat, rat, mouse, lion, fox, wolf, jackal, ass, porcupine, jerboa, hippopotamus, elephant, hyena, monkey, baboon, bat, hedeghog, bear, ichneum, leopard, hare, addax, kudu, goat, ibex, dorcas gazelle)

Dates: There are references to publications up to 1925. Notes appear to have been added at different times.

Notebook on Tehenu

Notebook with handwritten title on front cover 'TEHENU'. There is an index inside the front cover.

Notes relating to Tehenu (also known as Temehu) including: discussion of hieroglyphs, millstones, throw sticks, the county name initial, boundaries of Tehenu-land, Libya, dress, products, cults, flora.

Notebook also contains loose notes.

Reference to 'Weapons folder' and 'Notebook on Morocco'.

Notebook 30 on the olive

Notebook numbered by Newberry 'NB 30'. This has been covered by a label by John Harris 'PEN/G.XIII/N.A - Miscellaneous notes, references and photographs'. There is an index at the front of the notebook.

Contains notes mostly relating to the olive and olive tree. Including notes on: types of oil, composite hieroglyphs with T14 (throw stick); the olive-land; bibliographic references to the location of olive trees; climate and environmental conditions in parts of Egypt and suitability for olive trees including Marmarica and Cyrenaica; use of olive wood for clubs; different names for olive; presses used to extract oil; remains of the olive from ancient Egypt; hieroglyph for a handmill, products of Tehenu-land; the translation of thnw and thnt.

Also includes notes relating to: the pomegranate, Maqui flora, Min emblem, variations of the composite hieroglyph representing Lower Egypt, and the cedar tree. As well as a newspaper cutting on Agriculture in Mariut and Siwa, 21 October 1932, notes by Hermann Grapow in German on the olive tree, and letter from Joachim Spiegel also in German.

Some notes have been crossed out and pages cut out.

End of the notebook contains several photographs with handwritten captions including of: olive branches discovered in tombs; olive trees; olive presses; collecting labdanum. Also includes cutting and tracing of olives on a branch.

Deforestation, dessication and climate changes in Egypt

Folder titled 'Deforestation : Dessication' containing research notes on deforestation, dessication and climate changes in Egypt.

Includes

-Notes on the Libyan Desert or Sahara including on deforestation

-Notes in preparation for a lecture titled 'Taming the land and interpretation of nature'

-Notes on articles by Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker

-Notes on deforestation

-Notes on the former fertility of Egypt

-Newspaper cutting on soil erosion in Africa by Elspeth Huxley from The Times, 10 June 1937

-Notes on the geology of Egypt

-Typed lecture notes on deforestation, flora and fauna in Egypt

-Notes on dessication or drying up of lakes and rivers

-Typed draft titled 'Deforestation of Mediterrannean Lands'

-Notes on deserts

Libya and Sudan

Folder titled 'Geography. Nubia and the Sudan' and numbered 5.

Includes:

-Notes on countries to the south of Egypt including Sudan and Ethiopia

-Notes on Punt and its inhabitants including a postcard featuring the Queen of Punt

-Notes on Cyrenaica (now known as Libya), flora and fauna in Libya

-Typed draft on olive trees in Cyrenaica (now known as Libya)

-Typed notes on Colonel R.L. Playfair's travel in Libya in 1876

The olive

Folder titled 'Olive' and numbered 4, containing two handbound notebooks labelled 'Olive Tree' and 'Olive Oil', an unbound notebook titled 'Olive Tree - The Maryut Region', and a mounted photograph of an olive tree with note on the back 'Gethsemane - "Tree of the Agony"'.

Notebook titled 'Olive Tree' includes:
-Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, 150th Session, 31 December 1937 containing 'On some African species of the genus Olea and the original home of the cultivated Olive-tree' by Prof. Percy E. Newberry, 28 October 1937 (OEB 146386), including handwritten notes in the margins
-Typed draft titled 'The Cultivated Olive-tree'
-Handwritten notes on the olive, names for the olive in different languages including by the berbers
-Tracings from Petrie, W. M. Flinders. 1900. The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Part 2. London: Egypt Exploration Fund (OEB 147184) of early attestations of tehenu oil or oil from Libya
-Newspaper cutting on the olive in Tunisia
-Typed draft on the thnw tree being the same as the b3k tree

Notes include reference to 'NB [Notebook] 30' and 'envelope Olive Names'.

Notebook titled 'Olive Tree' includes:
-Notes on variant oil names with bibliographic references
-Typed draft on tehenu oil or oil from Libya
-Typed draft on the thnw tree being the same as the b3k tree
-Typed draft on the b3k tree and its oil
-Draft titled 'Note on M.Loret's identification of the b3k tree with the Moringa'
-Draft on the Moringa tree and its oil
-Draft on the translation of the Moringa tree and seed pod
-Draft on the translation of Nhh, a generic word for denoting oil
-Notes on unguents
-Cuttings of photographs of Menna and his wife being offered a bouquet (TopBib i.137(5)) and Menna and family fishing and fowling (TopBib i.138(12)) from tomb TT69 Menna
-Tracings from Petrie, W. M. Flinders. 1900. The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Part 1. London: Egypt Exploration Fund (OEB 147184)
-Notes on Shezmu
-Notes,drawings, tracings and a photograph on olive presses

Notes include references to 'NB29' and 'NB38'.

Notebook titled 'Olive Tree - The Maryut Region' includes:
-Draft on Athena and olives
-Typed notes on the olive trees including olive trees in the Mediterranean, species of olive tree, conditions for growing olives, and development of the cultivated olive tree.
-Typed and handwritten versions of a draft titled 'The Maryut Region'
-Typed draft titled 'The Oases of the Libyan Desert'

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 1'.

The mandrake

Folder titled 'Mandrake (Scorpion King)' containing a handbound notebook titled 'Mandrake' in which where are notes on a hieroglyphic sign in the shape of a rosette which precedes the royal name on the Scorpion King's Macehead (Ashmolean Museum, AN1896-1908.E3632) and which Newberry identifies as the mandrake.

Includes:

-Notes on occurences of the hieroglyphic sign

-Tracings of occurences of the hieroglyphic sign including handle of a flint knife (Cairo Museum, CG 14265), an ivory spoon and an Astrabad vessel

-Small and large photograph of a mandrake plant

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 1'.

Moringa

Folder titled 'Moringa' containing a handbound notebook titled 'Moringa'.

Includes:

-Notes on species of moringa

-List of moringa synonyms

-Draft titled 'Note on M.Loret's identification of the b3k tree with the Moringa

-Notes on trees including Myrobalanum and Balanites Aegypitiaca

-Notes and typed draft on balsam

-Notes and drawing on an ivory cylinder found in the tomb of King Khaskheti published in Petrie, F. 1901. The Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties, plate vii, no.13 (OEB 147184)

-Notes titled 'Yaqut on Mataria and the Balsam Tree'

-Notes on balm

-Drawings and notes on occurences of a hieroglyphic sign in the shape of a seed pod with publication references

-Notes on Cassia and Carob trees

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 1'.

Vines and wine

Folder titled 'Vine and Wine' containing a handbound notebook titled 'Vine and Wine'. Notebook contains notes on the cultivation of vines, royal vineyards, sealings of officials of the vineyards, wine jar inscriptions, wine, sources of wine, wine production, wine strainers including two cuttings of photographs of wine strainers.

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 1'.

Oils and unguents

Folder titled 'Oils and Unguents' containing a handbound notebook titled 'Oils and Unguents'. Notebook contains notes on oils and unguents including head dressing, oil used on the skin, massage, nwdw seeds, oil from moringa, oil and unguent used in rituals, variant writings of the oil name h3tt thnw or oil from Tehenu-land or Libya with publication references.

Also includes cuttings and drawings of attestations in tomb scenes, seals and labels.

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 1'.

Trees

Folder titled 'Trees' containing two notebooks (one handbound) also titled 'Trees'.

Handbound notebook titled 'Trees' contains notes relating to trees including on tree names, characteristic trees and shrubs of Egypt, incense, the date palm, tamarix, sycamore fig, sacred tree in nomes, nebak or zizyphus spina-Christi, and carob.

Also includes page of tracings titled 'Pomegranate and Early Kings' and a photograph of a pomegranate tree.

The second notebook contains an index at the front and includes notes relating to trees including on carob, castor oil including photograph of the castor oil tree or ricinus communis, ebony, persea tree, pine trees, balamites, tjeret-tree, date palm, and almond.

Also includes lists of occurences of other tree names. Roughly half of the notebook has been used. Page 11-12 on the pomegranate has been cut out.

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 1'.

Flora and Egyptian gardens

Folder titled 'Flora - miscellaneous; Egyptian Gardens' containing two handbound notebooks titled 'Flora - Miscellaneous' and 'Egyptian Gardens'.

Notebook titled 'Flora - Miscellaneous' contains notes, tracings and drawings relating to Egyptian flora including on agriculture, storing of grain, labdanum and its collection, cistus, cypress, gossypium, and cinammon. Also includes handwritten draft on the pomegranate, c.1947.

Notebook titled 'Egyptian Gardens' contains material relating to Egyptian gardens including:

-Notes on Methen's garden and orchard

-Cuttings of inscription relating to and depictions of gardens

-Drawing of a myrrh tree from a bas-relief in the Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari

-Photograph of the Libyan or Tehenu palette (Cairo Museum, CG 14238, JE 27434)

-Typed notes on gardening in Egypt, the pomegranate and cultivated olive trees

-Postcard showing Tutankhamen and his Queen in a garden

-Newspaper cutting of Newberry, Percy, 'Gardening 6000 Years Ago' in The Gardeners' Chronicle, no.678, 23 December 1899.

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 1'.

Animals - Antelope, Ass, Bovidae, Crocodile, Dog, Elephant

Folder titled 'Antelopes, Ass, Bovidae, Crocodile, Dog, Elephant' containing six handbound notebooks titled with each animal.

Notebook titled 'Antelopes' contains notes, tracings and drawings relating to the Addax, Oryx, and Nome of the Oryx. Also includes photograph of two antelope heads with their lower jaws.

Notebook titled 'Ass' contains notes and a tracing relating to the domesticated and wild ass.

Notebook titled 'Bovidae' contains notes, tracings and cuttings relating to cattle including castration, Mneris, oxen, cow, and words connected with oxen, cows and calves.

Notebook titled 'Crocodile' contains notes relating to crocodiles including names, personal names, the crocodile cult and Sobek.

Notebook titled 'Dog' contains notes relating to dogs including dog breeds and names of breeds, dog burial and mummification, hunting hounds in North Africa and pet names of dogs. Also includes typed draft titled 'Ancient Egyptian breeds of dogs' with figures, lists of references to dogs, tracings and drawings.

Notebook titled 'Elephant' contains notes relating to elephants including taming and hamstringing elephants, their distribution in Africa and Syria, and prehistoric drawings. Also includes two tracings and a drawing.

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 2'.

Animals - Fish, Dolphin, Frog, Scorpion, Goats, Sheep, Giraffe

Folder titled 'Fishes, Dolphin, Goat and Sheep, Giraffe' containing four handbound notebooks titled 'Fishes - Dolphin', 'Frog - Scorpion - Insects', 'Goats and Sheep', and 'Giraffe'.

Notebook titled 'Fishes - Dolphin' contains notes on fish including notes on catfish and fishing. Also includes a draft titled 'The Catfish', tracings and drawings of fish including catfish, cuttings of fish from the Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahari (TopBib ii2.344-347(10)-(11), organised by plate number taken from Naville, Edouard 1895. The temple of Deir el Bahari, 6 vols. Memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund [13]; [14]; [16]; [19]; [27]; 29. London: Egypt Exploration Fund. (OEB 146237) Volume 3, plates 69, 72, 73, and notes on dolphins.

Notebook titled 'Frog - Scorpion - Insects' contains notes on reptiles and insects including frogs and scorpions.

Notebook titled 'Goats and Sheep' contains notes on goat and sheep including on domestication, origin, breeds, distinction between the two, herds, associated cults, Mendes, and Khnum. Also includes tracings, cuttings and drawings of goats and sheep, and a photograph of goats in a tree taken in Morrocco.

Notebook titled 'Giraffe' contains notes and cuttings on giraffes.

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 2'.

Animals - Hippopotamus, Horse and Chariot, Lion, Monkey, Bats, Cheetah, Hyena, Bear, Jerboa, Porcupine, Deer, Ostrich

Folder numbered 3 and titled 'Hippopotamus, Horse and Chariot, Lion, Monkey, Bats, Cheetah, Hyena, Bear, Jerboa, Porcupine, Deer, Ostrich' containing five handbound notebooks titled 'Hippopotamus', 'Horse and Chariot', 'Lion', 'Monkey, Bats, Cheetah, Hyaena, Bear, Jerboa, Porcupine, Deer' and 'Ostrich'.

Notebook titled 'Hippopotamus' contains typed notes and draft on the hippopotamus.

Notebook titled 'Horse and Chariot' contains notes on the horse and the chariot including their introduction into Egypt, early references to them, representations in art, as well as notes on mules and charioteers. Also includes:

-Cutting of an image of a side of a painted box from the tomb of Tutankhamen showing Tutankhamen in a chariot (Cairo Museum, JE 61467)

-Cuttings of images of the interior and exterior of a chariot of Tuthmosis IV (Cairo Museum, JE 46097)

Notebook titled 'Lion' contains notes on lions including hunting lions, references to and representations of lions, their distribution and behavior. Also includes cutting of an image of a side of a painted box from the tomb of Tutankhamen showing Tutankhamen shooting lions from his chariot (Cairo Museum, JE 61467).

Notebook titled 'Monkey, Bats, Cheetah, Hyaena, Bear, Jerboa, Porcupine, Deer' includes:

-Notes on different species of baboon and monkey including cutting of drawings of two baboon-shaped objects

-Notes on the bat

-Notes on the cheetah including photograph of Newberry with a cheetah

-Notes on the jerboa

-Notes on references to the hyena

-Notes on references to the bear

-Notes on references to the porcupine including cutting of a porcupine inscription (Egyptian Museum of Berlin, 1132)

-Draft on the fallow deer including tracing and drawings

Notebook titled 'Ostrich' includes notes on the ostrich including their distribution and on ostrich feathers worn in the hair. Also includes:

-Cuttings from The Illustrated London News of a fan made out of ostrich feathers and fan handle found in the tomb of Tutankhamun, 22 January 1927 (TopBib i2.583 [242])

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 2'.

Animals - Rekhyt bird, Rhinoceros, Snakes, Graffiti of Animals, Libyan Desert, Various Mammals

Folder titled 'Rekhyt bird, Rhinoceros, Snakes, Graffiti of animals, Libyan Desert, Various Mammals' containing five handbound notebooks titled 'The Rekhyt-Bird', 'Rhinoceros', 'Snakes', 'Graffiti of Animals - Libyan Desert', 'Various Mammals' and some loose notes.

Notebook titled 'The Rekhyt-Bird' includes notes and draft on the rekhyt-bird and Newberry's identification of it with the Crested Bustard rather than the Plover. Also includes:

-Notes on bustards including photograph

-Use of the hieroglyphic sign in the name of King Aha

-Drawings and tracings of the rekhyt-bird

-Cuttings from publications of depictions of the rekhyt-bird in tomb scenes

-Rubbing and cutting of a slate palette fragment (Cairo Museum, CG 14238 bis) (TopBib v.105A)

Notebook titled 'Rhinoceros' contains notes on the rhinoceros and tracings.

Notebook titled 'Snakes' contains notes on snakes including references to snakes or the serpant god, snake cults, cobras, and winged snakes. Notes include a reference to 'small card index "snakes"' and 'folder serpents'. Notebook also includes two loose pages which appear to have been inserted by Diana Magee. These pages are a handwritten draft of Newberry, Percy, 'Fy "cerastes"', in Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 34 (Dec., 1948), p. 118 (OEB 1466).

Notebook titled 'Graffiti of Animals - Libyan Desert' contains notes on rock graffiti and prehistoric rock engravings, notes on the Libyan Desert including a bibliography and a draft titled 'On the former fertility of the Libyan desert'.

Notebook titled 'Various Mammals' includes notes on cats including a tracing, the wolf, fox and jackal including tracing, the mouse, the rat, the hedgehog or porcupine, mythical animals and domestication of animals. Also includes:

-Cutting of images of a carved handle of a ceremonial knife (Metropolitan Museum, 26.7.1281)

-Drawings on a board of animal heads including oryx, ibex and dorcas gazelles.

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 2'.

Birds

Folder titled 'Fauna: Birds' containing a handbound folder titled 'Birds'. Folder includes notes on different species of bird including the crested ibis and the Egyptian vulture including drawings. Also includes cutting of a photograph of a mechanical bird trap and a list of Arabic names of birds.

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 2'.

Owls

Folder titled 'Owls [and hieroglyphic and hieratic renderings]' containing a handbound notebook titled 'Owls'.

Includes:

Notes on the owl

-Draft titled 'The owl as a hieroglyph' including tracings and drawings

-Tracing of a hoopoe

-Tracings of owls and cartouches wihich include an owl hieroglyph

-Rubbings of the 'Tehenu' or 'Libyan Palette' (Cairo Museum, CG 14238 and JE 27434)

-Card featuring a watercolour of an owl, 1910

-Notes on Buma

-Notes on the owl and Athena

-Draft titled 'The Owl as the bird of Death'

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Flora and Fauna 2'.

Bees and bee-keeping

Folder titled 'Bees' containing notes, drafts, correspondence, tracings, drawings and cuttings relating to bees, bee-keeping and honey in ancient Egypt, including draft titled 'Bee-Keeping in Ancient Egypt' (written later than 1934 based on references).

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Special Subjects 1'.

Architectural features including the lotus pattern and fluted columns

Folder titled 'Fluted columns' containing research material on architectural features including the lotus pattern and fluted columns.

Includes:
-Letter from Eiddan Edwards referring to an article by him on early architectural features, 15 January 1949.
-Tracings, cuttings and drawings of lotus patterns
-Drawings of examples of floral headdresses
-Drawings of examples of column heads
-Notes on columns
-Notes on silphium and silphium columns

Also includes draft letter to Sir Edward Salisbury which refers to a short paper Newberry is writing up on the origin of the fluted columns of Egypt and Greece.

This folder was previously in a box labelled, during previous archival processing, 'Special Subjects 2'.

Research material on tombs in Asyut

Research material on tombs in Asyut, identified during previous archival processing as being for a publication on Assiut [Asyut], and corrections to Griffith, F., The inscriptions of Siut and Dêr Rîfeh, (1889) (OEB 140749).

The original folder has been re-used and the title 'Flora - General (1)' crossed out. The folder includes a list of material relating to the original contents on flora.

Contains notes on tombs in Asyut including descriptions of tomb decoration with sketches, sketch plans of tombs including measurements with position of objects and paintings, copy of inscriptions, translations of inscriptions, and family trees.

Also includes copy of inscriptions from an 11th Dynasty tomb at Asyut (TopBib iv.265A), see Magee, Diana. 1988. Asyût to the end of the Middle Kingdom : a historical and cultural study. Thesis (D.Phil.), volume 2 page 34, University of Oxford. Faculty of Oriental Studies, and corrections to Griffith, F., The inscriptions of Siut and Dêr Rîfeh, (1889) (OEB 140749), including cuttings of lines from plate 9 and 10.

Photographs of Egypt

Photographs housed in an envelope labelled 'PEN/G.XIII/E.A - Various Photographs'. Includes photographs of landscapes, flora, presses, and a floral garland found in a tomb at Sheikh Abd el-Qurna in 1885.